House foundation types

When a house is built, it needs a foundation to hold the weight, a level and flat base for the construction, and a separation between the ground and the wood-based materials. Depending on the location and time when the house was built, house foundation types can range from concrete blocks, poured concrete, brick, stone or preservative-treated lumber. However, concrete is by far the most common house foundation type that is utilized today.

A majority of houses are built with a raised perimeter foundation created to support load-bearing walls and floors. Some homes are built on flat, concrete slab, providing structure and serving as the bottom floor of the house. Older smaller homes, such as vacation homes, are often created with an array of concrete piers. Some houses even contain several different house foundation types for different parts of the house. For example, houses with perimeter foundations may also have a beam running under a load-bearing wall along the center of the house.

Types of shallow foundations or footings

There are several methods of shallow foundations, also known as footings that may be considered when choosing a foundation. Strip footing, also referred to as continuous footing, is provided for a row of columns, which in many cases, and are extremely closely spaced where the footings overlap or touch one another. Strip footing is also provided for a load-bearing wall.

  • Isolated or spread footing is meant to support and individual column. Spread footing is a rectangular, square, or circular slab of uniform thickness.
  • Combined footing is a method that supports two columns. It is most commonly used when the columns are so close that their footings would overlap each other. Combined footing can be trapezoidal or rectangular in a plan.
  • Strap, or cantilever footing, is two separate footings connected with a lever or structural strap. The strap or lever helps the footing work as one unit.

Raft or mat foundation supports numerous walls and columns under a complete structure or a large part of it. This type of foundation is needed when the soil pressure is low or the walls and columns are so close that the footing would touch or overlap.

Deep foundation types

Deep foundations are needed to carry loads from a structure throughout weak soil or fills on to sturdier and less compressible soils.

  • Basement foundations are hollow substructures created to provide storage or working space below ground.
  • Buoyancy rafts, also known as hollow box foundations, are hollow substructures that provide semi-buoyant or buoyant substructures where the loading on the soil can be reduced to a lower intensity.
  • Caissons foundations are also hollow structures that can be constructed near or on the surface and sunk as one unit to their required level.
  • Cylinders are caissons that are small and single-cell.
  • Shaft foundations are designed within deep excavations with lining support and filled with pre-fabricated or concrete load-bearing units.

There are various house foundation types that can be difficult to choose from. Casafix can help you choose the right foundation for your house to suit your wants and needs.